**GATE 2020:** A new article on biomedical engineering introduced in the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) from the year 2020. This should unify the undergraduate program in biomedical engineering of several universities and help to stimulate the growth of research and of product development in India, said a statement from IIT Madras who led GATE last year.

*This year, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi* will proceed to the exam on February 1, 2, 8 and 9, 2020. Applications for it will start from September 3 on the official website, *gate.iitd.ac.in*. The online application process will close on September 24, 2019.

**READ | Check the GATE 2020 exam template**

## IIT GATE 2020: Biomedical Engineering Program

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

Linear algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Calculus: Mean value theorems, integral calculus theorems, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, area and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green theorems.

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Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of parameter variation, Cauchy and Euler equations, problems with initial values and limits, solving of Partial differential equations: method separable by variable Analysis of complex variables: Analytical functions, Cauchy integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor and Laurent series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.

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Probability and statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions. Significance tests, statistical power analysis and estimation of sample size. Regression and correlation analysis.

Numerical methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, iterative methods of solving differential equations, numerical integration.

**Section 2: Electrical circuits **

Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; vi relationships of resistance, inductance, mutual inductance and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with continuous excitation. Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thévenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems. Peak, average and rms values of alternating current quantities; apparent, active and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and Celements.

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**Section 3: Signals and Systems**

Continuous and discrete signal and systems: periodic, aperiodic and pulse signals; Sampling theorem; Laplace, Fourier and the transforms in z; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

**Section 4: Analog and digital electronics**

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zenerdiode, BJT and MOSFET; analysis of small signals of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers; applications of operational amplifiers: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, buffer. Combinatorial logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. Families of integrated circuits: TTL and CMOS.

Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt triggers, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flip-flops, shift registers, timers and counters; sampler-and-hold circuit, multiplexer. ADC and DAC characteristics (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion / setup time); basics of number systems, microprocessor and microcontroller: applications, memory and input-output interfacing; elements of data acquisition systems.

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**Section 5: Measures and control systems**

SI units, systematic and random errors of measurement, expression of uncertainty – index of accuracy and precision, error propagation. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; DC potentiometer; bridges for the measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Basic concepts in control engineering – modeling system: transfer function and space-state model, stability analysis: analysis in the time domain and in the frequency domain.

**Section 6: Sensors and Bioinstrumentation**

Types of instruments: resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; Optical sources and detectors: LEDs, photodiode, p-inandavalanchephotodiode (APD), light-dependent resistance and their characteristics; basics of magnetic detection; Interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic detection. LASER basics.

Origin, nature and types of biosignals, Principles of detection of physiological parameters, types of transducers and their characteristics, Electrodes for bioelectric signals, Bioelectric signals and their characteristics. Biopotential amplifiers, Noiseandarte facts and their management, electrical isolation (optical and electrical) and safety of biomedical instruments. Generation, acquisition and conditioning of the signal and analysis of biosignals: ECG, EMG, EEG, EOG, Blood ERG, PCG, GSR. Principles of measuring blood pressure, core temperature, volume and flow in arteries, veins and tissues – Lung volumes, respiration and heart rate.

**Section 7: Human Anatomy and Physiology**

Basic elements of the human body – musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, endocrine system, nervous system, digestive, nervous, immune, integumentary and reproductive systems, Basics of cell and molecular biology.

**Section 8: Biomechanics**

Engineering mechanics: free body and equilibrium diagrams; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies in plane motion; formulations of momentum and momentum (linear and angular) and energy, collisions. Hard tissue: definition of stress and strain; Mechanics of deformation. Bone structure and composition mechanical properties of bone, cortical and cancellous bones, viscoelastic properties, Maxwell & Voight models – anisotropy, fatigue analysis

Soft Tissues: Structure, functions, material properties and modeling of Soft Tissues: Cartilage, Tendon, Ligament, Muscle – Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

Human Joints and Movements: Skeletal Joints, Forces and Stresses in Human Joints, Joint Types, Joint Biomechanical Analyzes, Parameterization and Analysis in Gait

Biofluid mechanics: blood flow properties, fluid flow dynamics in the intact human cardiovascular system – modeling and experimental approaches, pulse wave velocities in arteries, measurement / estimation of in vivo elasticity of vessels blood.

**Section 9: Medical Imaging Systems**

Basic physics and instrumentation of medical images in radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, MRI, PET, FMRI, SPECT and their characteristics.

**Article 10: ****Biomaterials**

Basic properties of biomaterials, biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradable materials, Fundamentals of implants and medical devices, drug delivery media, scaffolds for tissue engineering

The exam will now cover 25 subjects including biomedical engineering, aerospace engineering, agricultural engineering, architecture and planning, biotechnology, civil engineering, chemical engineering, instrumentation engineering, mathematics and mechanical engineering, among others.